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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2017| July-September  | Volume 1 | Issue 3  
    Online since October 11, 2017

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLE
A review of treatment options in paediatric sleep-disordered breathing
Yu-Shu Huang, Christian Guilleminault
July-September 2017, 1(3):54-58
DOI:10.4103/prcm.prcm_5_17  
The clinical presentation of paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is different from that reported in adults. Children with paediatric OSA have more disturbed nocturnal sleep than excessive daytime sleepiness and present with more behavioural problems such as hyperactivity. They have sleep-related issues such as nocturnal enuresis and sleep-terrors and psychiatric problems such as depression and insomnia. Adenotonsillectomy has been the recommended treatment for paediatric OSA, but this practice as the initial treatment for all children has been questioned. The orthodontic approaches have been studied in children. Preliminary studies have suggested that rapid maxillary expansion and mandibular advancement with functional appliances may be effective even in children. Mandibular advancement devices, however, are not recommended for pre-pubertal children. These devices have been used in children in the late-teens, but long-term follow-up data are still lacking. Another non-invasive treatment is myofunctional therapy that has not been widely investigated. In syndromic children and where hypoventilation during sleep is present, positive airway pressure ventilation can be given. Nasal allergies are common in children. Increased nasal resistance impacts on breathing during sleep. Therefore, the treatment of nasal allergies with anti-inflammatory agents is an integral part of the management of paediatric OSA. Another important aspect of paediatric OSA is the presence of a short lingual frenulum and less frequently, a short nasal frenulum. They have been shown to cause abnormal growth of oral-facial region leading to OSA. Gastroesophageal reflux is both a cause and consequence of OSA and should be treated if present. The recent advance in the understanding of the pathogenesis of paediatric OSA lends hope that early recognition and management of factors that lead to the development of OSA may reduce the frequency of this disease and its sequelae. However, these factors are mostly unknown or ignored by specialists and general paediatricians during the early childhood orofacial development.
  2 4,166 464
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Prevalence and risk factors for symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity in primary snoring children
Mei-Ching Chan, Sharon Wan-Wah Cherk, Ka-Li Kwok, Shuk-Yu Leung, Jonathan Pak-Heng Ng, Rachel Shui-Ping Lee, Tracy Man-Kiu Ma
July-September 2017, 1(3):59-62
DOI:10.4103/prcm.prcm_15_17  
Aim: Primary snoring was reported to affect 7.2% of school children in Hong Kong, and emerging evidence suggested that neurobehavioural symptoms were more frequently found among this group of children. The current study investigated the prevalence of symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) i.e., attention deficit, hyperactivity and impulsivity (ADHI), in Chinese children with primary snoring. Materials and Methods: Polysomnography results and relevant clinical notes for all Chinese children aged 4–18-year performed from January 2009 to December 2010 in our sleep laboratory were retrospectively reviewed. Data of the Chinese version of modified Epworth Sleepiness Scale and C-domain of Paediatric Sleep Questionnaire were analysed. Results: In primary snorers, the presence of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and higher apnoea–hypopnea index (AHI) were risk factors for symptoms of AD with adjusted odds ratio of 3.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2–8.1) and 4.7 (95% CI = 1.1–20.7), respectively. Primary snorer with AD symptoms had higher AHI, 0.32 ± 0.31 compared those without symptoms, 0.21 ± 0.29, P = 0.038. EDS was an independent risk factor for ADHI with odds ratio of 4.7 (95% CI = 1.1–20.0). Conclusion: Early screening for symptoms of ADHD should be performed in children with primary snoring.
  1 2,972 342
Utilization of vibrating mesh nebulizer in the treatment of infants with acute bronchiolitis: A randomized, controlled trial
I-Ping Wu, Ming-Yi Chien, Hsiu-Feng Hsiao, Eric YT Chen, Yun-Yueh Liu, Chang-Wei Chou, Shen-Hao Lai
July-September 2017, 1(3):63-68
DOI:10.4103/prcm.prcm_17_17  
Background: Bronchiolitis is a disease that is predominantly caused by the infection of peripheral airway due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). The occurrence is highly prevalent among childhood stage with seasonal outbreak peak during fall and spring. Treatment of bronchiolitis invariably involves lengthy hospitalization, which places significant socio-economic burden on family caregivers and healthcare system. Aerosolizing hypertonic saline using small-volume jet nebulizer (SVN) remains as one of the effective therapies to alleviate symptoms in infants with acute bronchiolitis. However, such approach not only restraints treatment to hospitalization and can irritate patients with loud noise. It is unclear whether an alternative aerosol therapy that offers similar efficacy yet enhances portability, convenience and quiet operation is available. Materials and Methods: Herein we showed that a vibrating mesh nebulizer (VMN) offered quiet delivery and undisturbed nebulization yet harnessed similar improvement in clinical symptoms in contrast with SVN when treating hospitalized infants with acute bronchiolitis. Results: A total of 64 hospitalized infants (<12 months of age) with acute bronchiolitis were enrolled. Subjects were randomly assigned to SVN (n=32) and VMN (n=32) groups and had received the same aerosol treatment protocol during hospitalization. Besides respiratory rate, the initial overall severity score; hospital stay duration; and intravascular-line day for both groups (SVN vs VMN) were similar. The data were 4.30±1.44 vs 4.92±1.3; 3.97±1.88 vs 3.94±1.66 days; 2.31±1.47 vs 2.16±1.46 days correspondingly. However, a higher satisfaction score (4.8/5) was shown in a corresponding questionnaire indicating user preference in VMN due to enhanced portability, ease of clean and operation, and less-noise. These advantages could potentially facilitate bronchiolitis treatment and follow-up maintenance at home. Conclusion: In sum, the treatment outcome for infants with acute bronchiolitis was equivalent between SVN and VMN. Easy portability and simple operation features of VMN may present a much favored therapeutic option for home care users.
  1 4,104 511
EDITORIAL
Habitual snoring is probably pathological in children
Daniel Kwok-Keung Ng
July-September 2017, 1(3):53-53
DOI:10.4103/prcm.prcm_19_17  
  - 2,321 288
ERRATUM
The Asian Paediatric Pulmonology Society (APPS) position statement on childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

July-September 2017, 1(3):69-69
DOI:10.4103/WKMP-0132.216541  
  - 2,336 308