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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-March 2023
Volume 7 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-25

Online since Friday, April 7, 2023

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Viral respiratory infections and intensive care admissions during the pandemic p. 1
Gary W K Wong
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Approach to pulmonary haemorrhage in children: What could it be? p. 2
Anna Marie Nathan, Hng Shih Ying, Eg Kah Peng, Nadia Fareeda Muhammad Gowdh, Jessie de Bruyne
Pulmonary haemorrhage is rare in children but can be life-threatening. It is recognised as a triad of haemoptysis, drop in haemoglobin or iron-deficiency anaemia and radiographic evidence of pulmonary infiltrates. Although there can be a myriad of causes, careful history with consideration of co-morbid factors and radio imaging of the chest can help determine the most likely cause. This review will illustrate how to determine the aetiology, types of investigations to perform and management through real-life clinical vignettes.
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Factors associated with prolonged intensive care unit treatment and organ failure in pediatric patients with diabetic ketoacidosis p. 13
Jeffrey Eli Whang, Yi-Lei Wu, Jia-Yuh Chen, Chew-Teng Kor, Ming-Sheng Lee
Context: Patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) have potential complications, such as respiratory failure, cerebral edema, or acute renal injury, all of which can lead to a prolonged hospital course. Aims: This study identified risk factors for prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) stay and organ failure in pediatric patients with DKA. Materials and Methods: Patients with DKA aged <19 years admitted to the pediatric ICU of our hospital between June 2011 and May 2021 were enrolled. Demographic characteristics, initial Glasgow Coma Scale score, source of admission, biochemical values, ICU length of stay (LOS), and hospital LOS were collected. The primary outcome was to identify factors associated with prolonged (≥48 h) ICU treatment. The secondary outcomes were to identify factors associated with respiratory failure, cerebral injury, or acute renal failure. Results: This study enrolled 137 patients. Nonemergency room admission was associated with longer ICU LOS [adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 3.14; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01–9.82] compared with admission from the emergency room. Older age (aOR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.80–0.99) and underweight (aOR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.12–0.95) were associated with shorter ICU LOS. Conclusions: Recognizing the risk factors associated with prolonged ICU LOS in pediatric patients with DKA may help clinicians with the early identification of critical DKA cases.
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Virus infection and severe asthma exacerbations: A cross-sectional study in Children’s Hospital 1, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam p. 20
Thuy Van Thao Nguyen, Tuan Anh Tran, Vu Thuong Le, Kien Gia To
Context: Virus infection is a well-known risk factor for asthma exacerbations in temperate and subtropical countries, particularly in atopic children. However, the risk has not been well-described in tropical countries including Vietnam. Aims: To compare the odds of virus infection in hospitalized children with severe versus moderate asthma exacerbations. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Children’s Hospital 1, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Children who were admitted to the hospital and diagnosed with severe or moderate asthma exacerbations were recruited for the study. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from interviews and medical records. Virus infection was confirmed by multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction. Inhalant allergy was confirmed by a skin prick test with common indoor aeroallergens. Statistical Analysis Used: Associations among age, gender, passive smoking, child’s history of eczema, family history of asthma, virus infection, and inhalant allergy with the odds of severe asthma exacerbations were tested by binary logistic regressions. Multivariable logistic regression was done to measure the association between virus infection with the odds of severe asthma exacerbations adjusted for passive smoking. The odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were reported to show the strength of the associations. Results: Nearly half of the children were infected by a virus (48.5%) and had passive smoking (49.2%). The percentage of children with a positive skin prick test was 83%. The most common indoor aeroallergen was house dust mites (81.1%). The odds of severe asthma exacerbations in children with virus infection was three times higher than that in those without virus infection (OR: 3.21, 95% CI: 1.20‐8.60, P = 0.021). Conclusions: Immunization and other healthcare programs should be deployed to prevent asthmatic children from virus infection and passive smoking to reduce the risk of severe asthma exacerbations.
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