|Year : 2020 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 19-20
COVID-19 in children: Treat now and stop with vaccines in future
Department of Pediatrics, E-Da Hospital, School of Medicine for International Students, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan
|Date of Submission||29-Jan-2021|
|Date of Decision||30-Jan-2021|
|Date of Acceptance||01-Feb-2021|
|Date of Web Publication||09-Mar-2021|
No. 1, Yida Road, Jiaosu Village, Yanchao District, Kaohsiung City 82445
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
|How to cite this article:|
Su YT. COVID-19 in children: Treat now and stop with vaccines in future. Pediatr Respirol Crit Care Med 2020;4:19-20
Since December 2019, COVID-19 has infected more than 1 billion people and killed more than 2 million people worldwide. Although the World Health Organization and all countries have made efforts to control COVID-19, a third and more serious infection surge is currently ongoing. Some medications have been used to treat the disease; however, it is believed that vaccines are the only effective way to stop this pandemic. With the close cooperation of scientists and regulatory agencies, several COVID-19 vaccines have been approved and used in many countries since December 2020. However, none of these vaccines have yet been authorized for use in children. Children usually suffer mild to moderate symptoms, and the treatment strategies are different from those in adults including home isolation and being cared for by their parents/caregivers. The current issue includes two excellent review articles on COVID-19. The first article reviews the current SARS-CoV-2 vaccines used in adults and addresses their potential use in children. The second article reviews when to identify SARS-CoV-2 infection in children, and how to treat children with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 disease. In addition, a third article discusses the diagnostic role of computed tomography (CT) and flexible bronchoscopy (FB) in children with suspected foreign-body aspiration (FBA) and the therapeutic role of FB.
SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are an urgent and important topic. Chatani and Ng reviewed the currently available SARS-CoV-2 vaccines including mRNA vaccines, inactivated viral vaccines, and vector-based vaccines. In this article, the author compares these vaccines and provides a table that includes the manufacturer (name of product), mechanism of action, and reported side effects. Several vaccines have been approved by the regulatory agencies and been rapidly deployed in adults in many countries. Two vaccines are currently being tested in ongoing trials for children as young as 12 years old. Dr. Chatani and Ng discusses the administration and use of vaccines in the pediatric population, as well as potential pitfalls such as the historical background of respiratory syncytial vaccine and dengue virus vaccine. We hope that the results of the vaccine trials in children will show their safety and efficacy. After being approved by appropriate regulatory agencies, vaccines will protect children and help to attenuate the pandemic.
Children infected with SARS-CoV-2 usually less severe illness. Kabra reviewed the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 including the role of physicians in identifying and managing these patients. The findings of this review will help to elucidate when and whom to test for SARS-CoV-2 based on influenza-like symptoms, underlying conditions, family history, and contact history. The author also clarifies how to treat mild, moderate, and severe patients according to clinical features and the corresponding management. The treatment strategies include isolation at home or COVID-19 care facilities, monitoring by the parents/caregivers, teleconsultation, and admission to a ward or pediatric intensive care unit if indicated. The article also updates information about the use of medicines in children.
FBA in children is still an important diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, especially in cases without a history of aspiration of foreign body. Recently, the role of CT in the diagnosis of FBA and the role of FB in the treatment of FBA have g ained increasing attention. Bhat et al. conducted a prospective study to evaluate the role of CT and FB in the diagnosis of suspected trachea-bronchial FBA in children and found that the sensitivity and specificity rates for chest CT were lower than those for FB. They also reported that FB is a good therapeutic tool to retrieve airway foreign bodies, and that it is a safe procedure with minimum complication rate.
I would also like to remind the readers that the current issue is labeled April–June 2020 although it is in fact published in February 2021 because of the delay in publication. My sincerest apologies for any inconvenience caused to the authors.
The SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are already helping to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. I hope you are safe and well!
| References|| |
Chatani B, Ng DK. SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines: A Brief Review. Pediatr Respirol Crit Care Med 2020;4:21-4. [Full text]
Kabra S. Treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 in children. Pediatr Respirol Crit Care Med 2020;4:25-7. [Full text]
Soong WJ. Pediatric interventional flexible bronchoscopy. Pediatr Respirol Crit Care Med 2018;3:38-44.
Bhat JI, Choh NA, Zahoor S, Charoo BA, Tramboo ZM. Comparative analysis of computed tomography scan and flexible bronchoscopy in the evaluation of suspected foreign body aspiration in children and the role of later in its removal. Pediatr Respirol Crit Care Med 2020;4:28-32. [Full text]