• Users Online: 96
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Current issue Search Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 


 
 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 60-64

Usefulness of obstructive sleep apnea-18 as a predictor of moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea in children who have normal/inconclusive McGill oximetry score


1 Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pulmonology and Critical Care, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
2 Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand

Date of Submission23-Sep-2019
Date of Decision13-May-2020
Date of Acceptance09-Jun-2020
Date of Web Publication18-Aug-2020

Correspondence Address:
Suchada Sritippayawan
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pulmonology and Critical Care, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Rama IV Road,Bangkok 10330
Thailand
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/prcm.prcm_14_19

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 


Context: Overnight oximetry is a screening test for pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, those who demonstrate normal/inconclusive test still require diagnostic polysomnography (PSG). Since PSG has a long waiting list, an adjunct simple test for the prioritization would be helpful. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine whether the OSA-18 quality of life (QoL) questionnaire could predict moderate-to-severe OSA in children with normal/inconclusive overnight oximetry. Settings and Design: The study involves a cross-sectional study at a university hospital. Subjects and Methods: Overnight PSG and QoL assessed by the Thai-Version OSA-18 were performed in snoring children with normal/inconclusive overnight oximetry. Statistical Analysis: Unpaired Student's t-test, Chi-square, and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were used. Results: A total of 218 children (age 6.4 ± 2.5 years, 62% male) were studied. Sixty percent had moderate-to-severe OSA, while 40% had primary snoring/mild OSA. The mean total OSA-18 score was not different between the two groups. Subgroup analysis among those who never had medical treatment for OSA (n = 55) showed a higher total OSA-18 score in moderate-to-severe compared to primary snoring/mild OSA groups (80.5 ± 10.7 vs. 72.2 ± 14.4; P = 0.02). Total OSA-18 score >78 was the best cutoff value for predicting moderate-to-severe OSA (61.5% sensitivity, 80% specificity, 72.7% positive predictive value, and 69.7% negative predictive value). Combining this cutoff value with overweight/obesity did not improve its predictivity. Conclusions: We found the association between high total OSA-18 score and moderate-to-severe OSA in snoring children who had normal/inconclusive overnight oximetry and never had medical treatment for OSA. However, the best cutoff value of the score and other potential add-on parameters are still needed to be investigated.

Keywords: Children, obstructive sleep apnea, obstructive sleep apnea-18, oximetry


How to cite this article:
Tansriratanawong S, Sritippayawan S, Veeravigrom M, Deerojanawong J. Usefulness of obstructive sleep apnea-18 as a predictor of moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea in children who have normal/inconclusive McGill oximetry score. Pediatr Respirol Crit Care Med 2019;3:60-4

How to cite this URL:
Tansriratanawong S, Sritippayawan S, Veeravigrom M, Deerojanawong J. Usefulness of obstructive sleep apnea-18 as a predictor of moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea in children who have normal/inconclusive McGill oximetry score. Pediatr Respirol Crit Care Med [serial online] 2019 [cited 2020 Sep 19];3:60-4. Available from: http://www.prccm.org/text.asp?2019/3/3/60/292385




  Introduction Top


Overnight oximetry is a screening test for pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, those who demonstrate normal/inconclusive tests require polysomnography (PSG) for verifying the diagnosis.[1] Since PSG has a long waiting list, an adjunct simple test for prioritizing these children to get the urgent PSG would be helpful.

OSA-18 is a simple quality of life (QoL) questionnaires developed by Franco et al. in 2000 and has been widely used in the pediatric OSA population.[2],[3],[4],[5],[6] We, therefore, did the study to investigate the predictive value of Thai-Version OSA-18 in predicting moderate-to-severe OSA in children who had normal/inconclusive overnight oximetry.


  Subjects and Methods Top


Study design

This was a cross-sectional study performed in the Department of Pediatrics in a University Hospital of Thailand. The study protocol was reviewed and approved by the institutional review board for human research study. Informed consent and assent (where applicable) were obtained from the participants and their legal guardians before enroll in the study.

Population

Children aged 3–15 years who had habitual snoring, adenotonsillar hypertrophy, and normal/inconclusive overnight oximetry, according to the McGill Oximetry Scoring System, were enrolled.[7] The size of upper airway soft tissue was assessed by grading tonsillar size and X-ray of the lateral nasopharynx. All children had tonsillar size graded at least 3+ and adenoid hypertrophy demonstrated in the X-ray (adenoidal–nasopharyngeal ratio >0.6). Children whose caregivers did not understand the Thai language and those who were uncooperative with PSG or had the underlying conditions such as neuromuscular diseases, craniofacial anomalies, chronic lung diseases, asthma, and recent respiratory infection within 2 weeks before the study were excluded from the study.

Study protocol

All participants undertook attended overnight PSG to confirm the diagnosis of OSA and had Thai-Version OSA-18 QoL questionnaire completed by their caregivers on the following day after the PSG.

Polysomnography

The attended overnight PSG was performed at the Sleep Laboratory of the institute using the Sleep System Compumedics™ (Melbourne, Australia). The test was performed under the supervision of a well-trained sleep technician. The participants presented at the sleep laboratory at 8.30 P.M. and were discharged at 7.00 A.M. on the following day. All PSG used standard electroencephalographic monitoring, including frontal leads (F1, F2), central leads (C3, C4), occipital leads (O1, O2), and reference leads at the mastoids (M1, M2); electromyography; and electrooculography methodology. SpO2 was measured with a finger probe, while airflow was measured by two methods, including nasal pressure transducer and oronasal thermocouple. The thoracic and abdominal respiratory movements were monitored by respiratory inductance plethysmography. The body position was measured by a position sensor attached to the anterior chest wall on the thoracic belt. Carbon dioxide was measured by end-tidal CO2 monitoring or transcutaneous CO2 monitoring. Sleep stages were scored in 30-s epochs, according to the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) Manual. Apnea was defined using oral–nasal thermocouple excursion, and hypopnea was defined using nasal pressure transducer excursion. Apnea, hypopnea, and respiratory effort-related arousals were scored using the standard criteria from the AASM updated manual (Versions 2.0, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, and 2.4).[8],[9],[10],[11],[12] OSA was diagnosed if the participants demonstrated the events of obstructive apnea–hypopnea ≥1/h of total sleep time (TST) (obstructive apnea/hypopnea index [OAHI] ≥1 per TST). The severity of OSA was graded as mild, moderate, and severe in accordance with the OAHI (mild OSA: OAHI 1–4/TST; moderate OSA: OAHI 5–10/TST; and severe OSA: OAHI >10/TST).[13]

Quality of life assessment

Caregivers who regularly slept with the participants completed the QoL questionnaire on the following day after the PSG. The questionnaire used in this study was a Thai-Version OSA-18 developed and validated by Kuptanon et al.[14] It was translated from the original English version of Franco's Pediatric OSA instrument (OSA-18) under the permission of the original authors.[2] The questionnaire consisted of 18 items divided into five domains (sleep disturbance, physical symptoms, emotional symptoms, daytime functioning, and caregiver concerns). The 18 items were scored with a 7-point ordinal scale assessing the frequency of the specific symptoms. The scores on each of the 18 items were summed to produce a total score which ranged from 18 to 126. The higher score corresponded to the greater impact of OSA on QOL.

Sample size calculation

To investigate the best cutoff value of total OSA-18 score for predicting moderate-to-severe OSA, we used the following formula for calculating sample size:



Where P represented the estimated sensitivity of the test and Q was derived from 1 – P. The acceptable error (d) was set at 0.07, while α and β errors were set at 0.05 and 0.20, respectively. For the sensitivity of the test at 0.80, the calculated number of moderate-to-severe OSA children required for the study was 125. In accordance with the pilot survey, the proportion of moderate-to-severe OSA diagnosed by PSG among snoring children who had normal/inconclusive overnight oximetry in our institute was 56%. Therefore, the required number of enrolled participants was 224 cases.

Data acquisition and analysis

Collected data included demographic data, body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), total OSA-18 score, and OAHI. The participants were diagnosed with overweight and obese in accordance to the WHO criteria (https://www.who.int/growthref/who2007_bmi_for_age/en/). Mild and moderate-to-severe OSA were diagnosed basing upon the OAHI. Clinical data were compared between the two groups using the unpaired Student's t-test for continuous variables and the Chi-square or Fisher's exact test (where applicable) for categorical variables to identify the factors associated with moderate-to-severe OSA. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was applied for identifying the best cutoff value of the total OSA-18 score for predicting moderate-to-severe OSA. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) of the best cutoff value were calculated. A two-tailed P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The analysis was performed using SPSS Version 16.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA).


  Results Top


Two hundred and eighteen children who had normal/inconclusive overnight oximetry were eligible and enrolled in the study. PSG revealed primary snoring, mild OSA, and moderate-to-severe OSA in 10 (5%), 76 (35%), and 132 cases (60%), respectively. Clinical data including demographic data and BMI as well as PSG findings and total OSA-18 score are shown in [Table 1]. Comparison between primary snoring/mild OSA and moderate-to-severe OSA groups found no difference in clinical data and mean total OSA-18 score between the two groups [Table 2]. However, subgroup analysis among children who never had medical treatment (such as montelukast and intranasal steroid) for their OSA (n = 55) found a higher total OSA-18 score in the moderate-to-severe compared to the primary snoring/mild OSA groups (80.5 ± 10.7 vs. 72.2 ± 14.4; P = 0.02) [Table 3]. The best cutoff value of the total OSA-18 score for predicting moderate-to-severe OSA in this subgroup analysis was 78 with the area under the curve of 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.55–0.84; P = 0.01) [Figure 1]. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of this cutoff value were 61.5, 80, 72.7, and 69.7%, respectively. Children who had total OSA-18 score >78 had 2.1 times increased risk of moderate-to-severe OSA (95% CI 1.2–3.9; P = 0.02). There was a higher frequency of moderate-to-severe OSA among children who had total OSA-18 score >78 and overweight/obesity. However, this was not statistically significant [Table 3]. Combining total OSA-18 score >78 with overweight/obesity did not increase its predictivity for identifying moderate-to-severe OSA. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 60%, 75%, 69.2%, and 66.7%, respectively, with the area under the curve of 0.77 (95% CI 0.60–0.94; P = 0.01) [Figure 2].
Table 1: Clinical data, polysomnography findings, and total obstructive sleep apnea-18 score of the study patients (n=218)

Click here to view
Table 2: Comparison of clinical data and total obstructive sleep apnea-18 score between primary snoring/mild obstructive sleep apnea and moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea groups

Click here to view
Table 3: Comparison of clinical data and total obstructive sleep apnea-18 score between primary snoring/mild obstructive sleep apnea and moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea groups (subgroup analysis among children who never had medical treatment for obstructive sleep apnea)

Click here to view
Figure 1: The receiver operating characteristic curve of total obstructive sleep apnea-18 score >78 in medical treatment for obstructive sleep apnea.

Click here to view
Figure 2: The receiver operating characteristic curve of total obstructive sleep apnea-18 score >78 in predicting moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea in snoring children who were overweight/obese and never had medical treatment for obstructive sleep apnea.

Click here to view



  Discussion Top


In this study, we found that almost all of the children who had normal/inconclusive overnight oximetry had OSA demonstrated by PSG. Moreover, 60% of the cases had the moderate-to-severe disease. The high false-negative predictive value of the test is a known major limitation of overnight oximetry as a screening test for pediatric OSA. In the context where PSG is not widely available and costly, overnight oximetry still serves as the first test for screening OSA in children. However, the majority of the cases show normal or inconclusive results, which eventually require PSG to verify the diagnosis. A high proportion of moderate-to-severe OSA in children who had normal/inconclusive overnight oximetry in this study suggested that a measure to prioritize these children for the urgent diagnostic PSG would be helpful.

There have been many simple tests developed for substituting overnight PSG in pediatric OSA. OSA-18 is a simple questionnaire for QoL assessment and has been widely studied in snoring children. However, the relationship between total OSA-18 score and OSA severity was various among the studies.[14],[15],[16],[17],[18],[19],[20],[21] The discrepancies of the results could be due to the different diagnostic criteria for OSA, versions of PSG scoring system, and patient characteristics such as ethnicity, socioeconomic background, and current therapeutic interventions that could affect the QoL assessment. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between total OSA-18 score and OSA severity in habitually snoring children focusing on those who had adenotonsillar hypertrophy and normal/inconclusive overnight oximetry. We applied AASM updated manual 2012 for sleep staging and event scorings which is more sensitive in identifying obstructive hypopnea events when compared to the previous studies.[8],[9],[10],[11],[12]

In this study, we found no relationship between total OSA-18 score and OSA severity among the overall study population. However, subgroup analysis focusing on children who never had medical treatment (montelukast or intranasal steroid) for their OSA showed a positive relationship between total OSA-18 score and OSA severity. This implied that therapeutic intervention might have some impacts on this relationship. It has been reported that both medical and surgical interventions improved PSG findings and QoL in children who had OSA secondary to adenotonsillar hypertrophy.[22],[23],[24],[25],[26],[27] However, the improvement of QoL might not be parallel with the improvement of PSG findings after therapeutic interventions. Kang et al. studied QoL and AHI before and after adenotonsillectomy in pediatric OSA and found total OSA-18 score was markedly improved in 93% of the cases while 45% still had residual OSA documented by PSG.[26] The authors addressed the possibility of “placebo effect” of the surgery for the discrepancy between QoL and AHI improvement after the treatment. In addition, they found a positive correlation between AHI and total OSA-18 score in the patients only before but not after the surgery.[26] Currently, there has been no study investigated whether medical treatment could have the same effect on the inconsistency between subjective and objective improvements in pediatric OSA. However, in this study, a relationship between total OSA-18 score and OAHI was found only among children who never had medical treatment for their OSA. These findings implied that therapeutic interventions, either medical or surgical treatment, could have an impact on the relationship between total OSA-18 score and OSA severity assessed by PSG. It could be possible that the various relationships between OSA-18 score and OSA severity reported in the previous studies were affected by the various therapeutic interventions in the study population.

In this study, the ROC curve analysis showed that total OSA-18 score >78 was the best cutoff value for predicting moderate-to-severe OSA (with the area under the curve of 0.70) in children who had normal/inconclusive overnight oximetry and never had medical treatment for their OSA. However, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of this cutoff value were not good. Further study in a larger population would provide us a precise validity of OSA-18 in predicting OSA severity in this population.

It has been known that obesity is another risk factor of OSA. In this study, moderate-to-severe OSA seemed to be more prevalent among children who had total OSA-18 score >78 and overweight/obesity [Table 3]. However, the predictivity of this combination for identifying moderate-to-severe OSA was not good either. Further study to identify other helpful add-on parameters such as Mallampati score, nasal turbinate assessment which represents the size of upper airway soft tissue, would be helpful to identify the best diagnostic tool for prioritizing children who need urgent diagnostic PSG.


  Conclusions Top


We found an association between high total OSA-18 score and the occurrence of moderate-to-severe OSA in snoring children who had normal/inconclusive overnight oximetry, especially among those who never had medical treatment for their OSA. However, the best cutoff value of total OSA-18 score and other potential add-on parameters to increase its validity for prioritizing these children to get the urgent diagnostic PSG are still needed to be investigated.

Financial support and sponsorship

This study was financially supported by Ratchadapiseksompotch Research Fund, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University (Grant No. RA58/013).

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Marcus CL, Brooks LJ, Draper KA, Gozal D, Halbower AC, Jones J, et al. Diagnosis and management of childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Pediatrics 2012;130:576-84.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Franco RA Jr., Rosenfeld RM, Rao M. First place-resident clinical science award 1999. Quality of life for children with obstructive sleep apnea. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2000;123:9-16.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Fischer Y, Rettinger G, Dorn M. Long term change in quality of life after adenotonsillectomy for pediatric obstructive sleep disorders. Laryngorhinootologie 2006;85:809-18.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Friedman M, Samuelson CG, Hamilton C, Maley A, Taylor D, Kelley K, et al. Modified adenotonsillectomy to improve cure rates for pediatric obstructive sleep apnea: A randomized controlled trial. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2012;147:132-8.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Tripuraneni M, Paruthi S, Armbrecht ES, Mitchell RB. Obstructive sleep apnea in children. Laryngoscope 2013;123:1289-93.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Ericsson E, Lundeborg I, Hultcrantz E. Child behavior and quality of life before and after tonsillotomy versus tonsillectomy. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2009;73:1254-62.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Nixon GM, Kermack AS, Davis GM, Manoukian JJ, Brown KA, Brouillette RT. Planning adenotonsillectomy in children with obstructive sleep apnea: The role of overnight oximetry. Pediatrics 2004;113:e19-25.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Berry RB, Brooks R, Gamaldo CE, Harding SM, Marcus CL, Vaughn V. The AASM manual for the scoring of sleep and associated events: Rules, terminology and technical specifications, version 2.0. Illinois, Darien: American Academy of Sleep Medicine; 2012.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Berry RB, Brooks R, Gamaldo CE, Harding SM, Lloyd RM, Marcus CL, et al. The AASM manual for the scoring of sleep and associated events: Rules, terminology and technical specifications, version 2.1. Illinois, Darien: American Academy of Sleep Medicine; 2014.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Berry RB, Brooks R, Gamaldo CE, Harding SM, Lloyd RM, Marcus CL, et al. The AASM manual for the scoring of sleep and associated events: Rules, terminology and technical specifications, version 2.2. Illinois, Darien: American Academy of Sleep Medicine; 2015.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Berry RB, Brooks R, Gamaldo CE, Harding SM, Lloyd RM, Marcus CL, et al. The AASM manual for the scoring of sleep and associated events: Rules, terminology and technical specifications, version 2.3. Illinois, Darien: American Academy of Sleep Medicine; 2016.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Berry RB, Brooks R, Gamaldo CE, Harding SM, Lloyd RM, Quan SF, et al. The AASM manual for the scoring of sleep and associated events: Rules, terminology and technical specifications, version 2.4. Illinois, Darien: American Academy of Sleep Medicine; 2017.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Katz ES, Marcus CL. Diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea. In: Sheldon SH, Ferber R, Kryger MH, Gozal D, editors. Principles and Practice of Pediatric Sleep Medicine. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2014. p. 221-30.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Kuptanon T, Chukumnerd J, Leejakpai A, Preutthipan A. Reliability and validity of Thai version quality of life questionnaire (OSA-18) for pediatric obstructive sleep apnea. J Med Assoc Thai 2015;98:464-71.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Borgström A, Nerfeldt P, Friberg D. Questionnaire OSA-18 has poor validity compared to polysomnography in pediatric obstructive sleep apnea. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2013;77:1864-8.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Hasukic B. OSA-18 survey in evaluation of sleep-disordered breathing in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Med Arch 2013;67:111-4.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Constantin E, Tewfik TL, Brouillette RT. Can the OSA-18 quality-of-life questionnaire detect obstructive sleep apnea in children? Pediatrics 2010;125:e162-8.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Ishman SL, Yang CJ, Cohen AP, Benke JR, Meinzen-Derr JK, Anderson RM, et al. Is the OSA-18 predictive of obstructive sleep apnea: Comparison to polysomnography. Laryngoscope 2015;125:1491-5.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Kang KT, Weng WC, Yeh TH, Lee PL, Hsu WC. Validation of the Chinese version OSA-18 quality of life questionnaire in Taiwanese children with obstructive sleep apnea. J Formos Med Assoc 2014;113:454-62.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Mousailidis GK, Lachanas VA, Skoulakis CE, Sakellariou A, Exarchos ST, Kaditis AG, et al. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Greek OSA-18 questionnaire in children undergoing polysomnography. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2014;78:2097-102.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Walter LM, Biggs SN, Cikor N, Rowe K, Davey MJ, Horne RS, et al. The efficacy of the OSA-18 as a waiting list triage tool for OSA in children. Sleep Breath 2016;20:837-44.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Gudnadottir G, Ellegård E, Hellgren J. Intranasal budesonide and quality of life in pediatric sleep-disordered breathing: A randomized controlled trial. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2018;158:752-9.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Kheirandish-Gozal L, Bandla HP, Gozal D. Montelukast for children with obstructive sleep apnea: Results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Am Thorac Soc 2016;13:1736-41.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Goldbart AD, Greenberg-Dotan S, Tal A. Montelukast for children with obstructive sleep apnea: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Pediatrics 2012;130:e575-80.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Todd CA, Bareiss AK, McCoul ED, Rodriguez KH. Adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnea and quality of life: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2017;157:767-73.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Kang KT, Weng WC, Lee CH, Lee PL, Hsu WC. Discrepancy between objective and subjective outcomes after adenotonsillectomy in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2014;151:150-8.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Bhattacharjee R, Kheirandish-Gozal L, Spruyt K, Mitchell RB, Promchiarak J, Simakajornboon N, et al. Adenotonsillectomy outcomes in treatment of obstructive sleep apnea in children: A multicenter retrospective study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2010;182:676-83.  Back to cited text no. 27
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Subjects and Methods
Results
Discussion
Conclusions
References
Article Figures
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed189    
    Printed11    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded55    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]