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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 42-52

A practical, evidence-based approach to postneonatal management of children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia


1 Queens Medical Centre, Nottingham Children's Hospital, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham, England
2 Department of Paediatrics, Kwong Wah Hospital, Yau Ma Tei, Hong Kong

Correspondence Address:
Jayesh Mahendra Bhatt
Queens Medical Centre, Nottingham Children's Hospital, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Derby Road, Nottingham NG7 2UH
England
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/prcm.prcm_2_20

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Despite increasing survival for babies born preterm, the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remains similar and continues to be the most common chronic lung disease in the preterm population. Advances in neonatal management, including the use of antenatal steroids, exogenous surfactants and changes in ventilation, have resulted in a change in the pathophysiology of BPD to a condition characterized by an arrest in alveolar development and vascular remodeling. There are numerous diagnostic definitions used for this heterogeneous condition with those using the extent of respiratory support required at 36 weeks postmenstrual age shown to be the most effective in predicting long-term pulmonary outcomes. In this article, we will discuss definitions, etiology, and pathophysiology of BPD. Management of infants with established BPD requires a multi-disciplinary team, including neonatologists and respiratory pediatricians with support for families being crucial to long term care. In this article, we will review current guidelines on oxygen saturation targets for established BPD and discuss how the use of a structured weaning pathway, as used at our center, has been shown to reduce the total duration of home oxygen. Other cornerstones of management, including optimizing growth and nutrition, reducing second-hand smoke exposure, and infection prevention, are discussed. For infants with the most severe BPD, we will review the evidence base for pharmacological therapies and indications for long-term ventilatory support. With a number of emerging therapies such as mesenchymal stem cells at the stage of phase one clinical trials, we will discuss future directions in BPD management.


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