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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 51-55

Clinical profile and outcome of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in children in Indonesia


Department of Pediatric, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada/Dr. Sardjito Hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Rina Triasih
Department of Pediatric, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada/Dr. Sardjito Hospital, Jl. Kesehatan No. 1, Yogyakarta 55284
Indonesia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/prcm.prcm_10_18

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Context: Tuberculosis (TB) is a significant problem among children in Indonesia. While pulmonary TB has been widely reported, information on extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) among children in Indonesia has not been well documented. Aims: The aim of this study is to document demographic and clinical characteristics and outcome of EPTB in children. Settings and Design: A retrospective study was conducted in Dr. Sardjito Hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Subjects and Methods: Medical records were reviewed for all children aged younger than 18 years diagnosed with EPTB and admitted to this hospital between 2009 and 2015. Results: Fifty-three patients with EPTB were admitted to the hospital during the study period. EPTB was more common in children aged >5 years, with median (interquartile range) age of presentation at 12.5 years (4.1–14.7 years). Major presenting symptoms were fever (72%), cough (55%), and weight loss (38%). Common types of EPTB were meningitis (28%), miliary TB (23%), and osteoarthritis (20%). The diagnosis was confirmed by either acid-fast bacilli smear or GeneXpert MTB/rifampicin (RIF) in 13 patients. Evidence of TB infection was documented in 26 % of children with positive result of tuberculin skin test. Mycobacterium TB was detected by GeneXpert MTB/RIF in 23% of children. The mortality rate was 19% which mostly occured in children with meningitis (60%). Conclusion: EPTB was commonly seen in older children, and tuberculous meningitis was both the most common type and cause of death of EPTB in our setting.


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